A00-B99 C00-D48D50-D89 E00-E90 F00-F99 G00-G99 H00-H59 H60-H95 I00-I99 J00-J99 K00-K93
L00-L99 M00-M99 N00-N99 O00-O99 P00-P96 Q00-Q99 R00-R99 S00-T98 V01-Y98 Z00-Z99 U00-U99

F90-F98 Behavioural and emotional disorders with onset usually occurring in childhood and adolescence

Chapter V

Mental and behavioural disorders

Behavioural and emotional disorders with onset usually occurring in childhood and adolescence

F90Hyperkinetic disorders
Latin: Disordines hyperkinetici
A group of disorders characterized by an early onset (usually in the first five years of life), lack of persistence in activities that require cognitive involvement, and a tendency to move from one activity to another without completing any one, together with disorganized, ill-regulated, and excessive activity. Several other abnormalities may be associated. Hyperkinetic children are often reckless and impulsive, prone to accidents, and find themselves in disciplinary trouble because of unthinking breaches of rules rather than deliberate defiance. Their relationships with adults are often socially disinhibited, with a lack of normal caution and reserve. They are unpopular with other children and may become isolated. Impairment of cognitive functions is common, and specific delays in motor and language development are disproportionately frequent. Secondary complications include dissocial behaviour and low self-esteem.
Excludes:anxiety disorders (F41.-)
mood [affective] disorders (F30-F39)
pervasive developmental disorders (F84.-)
schizophrenia (F20.-)
F90.0Disturbance of activity and attention
Latin: Disordo activitatis et disordo attentionis
Attention deficit:
· disorder with hyperactivity
· hyperactivity disorder
· syndrome with hyperactivity
Excludes:hyperkinetic disorder associated with conduct disorder (F90.1)
F90.1Hyperkinetic conduct disorder
Latin: Disordo morum hyperkineticus
Hyperkinetic disorder associated with conduct disorder
F90.8Other hyperkinetic disorders
Latin: Disordines hyperkinetici alii
F90.9Hyperkinetic disorder, unspecified
Latin: Disordo hyperkineticus, non specificatus
Hyperkinetic reaction of childhood or adolescence NOS
Hyperkinetic syndrome NOS

F91Conduct disorders
Latin: Disordines morum
Disorders characterized by a repetitive and persistent pattern of dissocial, aggressive, or defiant conduct. Such behaviour should amount to major violations of age-appropriate social expectations; it should therefore be more severe than ordinary childish mischief or adolescent rebelliousness and should imply an enduring pattern of behaviour (six months or longer). Features of conduct disorder can also be symptomatic of other psychiatric conditions, in which case the underlying diagnosis should be preferred.

Examples of the behaviours on which the diagnosis is based include excessive levels of fighting or bullying, cruelty to other people or animals, severe destructiveness to property, fire-setting, stealing, repeated lying, truancy from school and running away from home, unusually frequent and severe temper tantrums, and disobedience. Any one of these behaviours, if marked, is sufficient for the diagnosis, but isolated dissocial acts are not.

Excludes:mood [affective] (F30-F39)
pervasive developmental disorders (F84.-)
schizophrenia (F20.-)
when associated with:
· emotional disorders (F92.-)
· hyperkinetic disorders (F90.1)
F91.0Conduct disorder confined to the family context
Latin: Disordo morum in familia
Conduct disorder involving dissocial or aggressive behaviour (and not merely oppositional, defiant, disruptive behaviour), in which the abnormal behaviour is entirely, or almost entirely, confined to the home and to interactions with members of the nuclear family or immediate household. The disorder requires that the overall criteria for F91.- be met; even severely disturbed parent-child relationships are not of themselves sufficient for diagnosis.
F91.1Unsocialized conduct disorder
Latin: Disordo morum non socialisatus
Disorder characterized by the combination of persistent dissocial or aggressive behaviour (meeting the overall criteria for F91.- and not merely comprising oppositional, defiant, disruptive behaviour) with significant pervasive abnormalities in the individual's relationships with other children.
Conduct disorder, solitary aggressive type
Unsocialized aggressive disorder
F91.2Socialized conduct disorder
Latin: Disordo morum socialisatus
Disorder involving persistent dissocial or aggressive behaviour (meeting the overall criteria for F91.- and not merely comprising oppositional, defiant, disruptive behaviour) occurring in individuals who are generally well integrated into their peer group.
Conduct disorder, group type
Group delinquency
Offences in the context of gang membership
Stealing in company with others
Truancy from school
F91.3Oppositional defiant disorder
Latin: Disordo oppositus et provocatus
Conduct disorder, usually occurring in younger children, primarily characterized by markedly defiant, disobedient, disruptive behaviour that does not include delinquent acts or the more extreme forms of aggressive or dissocial behaviour. The disorder requires that the overall criteria for F91.- be met; even severely mischievous or naughty behaviour is not in itself sufficient for diagnosis. Caution should be employed before using this category, especially with older children, because clinically significant conduct disorder will usually be accompanied by dissocial or aggressive behaviour that goes beyond mere defiance, disobedience, or disruptiveness.
F91.8Other conduct disorders
Latin: Disordines morum alii
F91.9Conduct disorder, unspecified
Latin: Disordo morum, non specificatus
· behavioural disorder NOS
· conduct disorder NOS

F92Mixed disorders of conduct and emotions
Latin: Disordines morum et emotionum mixti
A group of disorders characterized by the combination of persistently aggressive, dissocial or defiant behaviour with overt and marked symptoms of depression, anxiety or other emotional upsets. The criteria for both conduct disorders of childhood (F9l.-) and emotional disorders of childhood (F93.-) or an adult-type neurotic diagnosis (F40-F48) or a mood disorder (F30-F39) must be met.
F92.0Depressive conduct disorder
Latin: Disordo morum depressivus
This category requires the combination of conduct disorder (F91.-) with persistent and marked depression of mood (F32.-), as demonstrated by symptoms such as excessive misery, loss of interest and pleasure in usual activities, self-blame, and hopelessness; disturbances of sleep or appetite may also be present.
Conduct disorder in F91.- associated with depressive disorder in F32.-
F92.8Other mixed disorders of conduct and emotions
Latin: Disordines morum et emotionum mixti - alii
This category requires the combination of conduct disorder (F91.-) with persistent and marked emotional symptoms such as anxiety, obsessions or compulsions, depersonalization or derealization, phobias, or hypochondriasis.
Conduct disorder in F91.- associated with:
· emotional disorder in F93.-
· neurotic disorder in F40-F48
F92.9Mixed disorder of conduct and emotions, unspecified
Latin: Disordo morum et emotionum mixtus, non specificatus

F93Emotional disorders with onset specific to childhood
Latin: Disordines emotionum in infantia orti
Mainly exaggerations of normal developmental trends rather than phenomena that are qualitatively abnormal in themselves. Developmental appropriateness is used as the key diagnostic feature in defining the difference between these emotional disorders, with onset specific to childhood, and the neurotic disorders (F40-F48).
Excludes:when associated with conduct disorder (F92.-)
F93.0Separation anxiety disorder of childhood
Latin: Disordo separationis puerilis anxiosus
Should be diagnosed when fear of separation constitutes the focus of the anxiety and when such anxiety first arose during the early years of childhood. It is differentiated from normal separation anxiety when it is of a degree (severity) that is statistically unusual (including an abnormal persistence beyond the usual age period), and when it is associated with significant problems in social functioning.
Excludes:mood [affective] disorders (F30-F39)
neurotic disorders (F40-F48)
phobic anxiety disorder of childhood (F93.1)
social anxiety disorder of childhood (F93.2)
F93.1Phobic anxiety disorder of childhood
Latin: Disordo puerilis phobicus anxiosus
Fears in childhood that show a marked developmental phase specificity and arise (to some extent) in a majority of children, but that are abnormal in degree. Other fears that arise in childhood but that are not a normal part of psychosocial development (for example agoraphobia) should be coded under the appropriate category in section F40-F48.
Excludes:generalized anxiety disorder (F41.1)
F93.2Social anxiety disorder of childhood
Latin: Disordo puerilis socialis anxiosus
In this disorder there is a wariness of strangers and social apprehension or anxiety when encountering new, strange, or socially threatening situations. This category should be used only where such fears arise during the early years, and are both unusual in degree and accompanied by problems in social functioning.
Avoidant disorder of childhood or adolescence
F93.3Sibling rivalry disorder
Latin: Disordo aemulationis cum fratre et sorore
Some degree of emotional disturbance usually following the birth of an immediately younger sibling is shown by a majority of young children. A sibling rivalry disorder should be diagnosed only if the degree or persistence of the disturbance is both statistically unusual and associated with abnormalities of social interaction.
Sibling jealousy
F93.8Other childhood emotional disorders
Latin: Disordines emotionum in infantia orti alii
Identity disorder
Overanxious disorder
Excludes:gender identity disorder of childhood (F64.2)
F93.9Childhood emotional disorder, unspecified
Latin: Disordo emotionum puerilis, non specificatus

F94Disorders of social functioning with onset specific to childhood and adolescence
Latin: Disordines functionis socialis in infantia et adolenscentia orti
A somewhat heterogeneous group of disorders that have in common abnormalities in social functioning which begin during the developmental period, but which (unlike the pervasive developmental disorders) are not primarily characterized by an apparently constitutional social incapacity or deficit that pervades all areas of functioning. In many instances, serious environmental distortions or privations probably play a crucial role in etiology.
F94.0Elective mutism
Latin: Mutismus selectivus
Characterized by a marked, emotionally determined selectivity in speaking, such that the child demonstrates a language competence in some situations but fails to speak in other (definable) situations. The disorder is usually associated with marked personality features involving social anxiety, withdrawal, sensitivity, or resistance.
Selective mutism
Excludes:pervasive developmental disorders (F84.-)
schizophrenia (F20.-)
specific developmental disorders of speech and language (F80.-)
transient mutism as part of separation anxiety in young children (F93.0)
F94.1Reactive attachment disorder of childhood
Latin: Disordo connoxivus reactivus puerilis
Starts in the first five years of life and is characterized by persistent abnormalities in the child's pattern of social relationships that are associated with emotional disturbance and are reactive to changes in environmental circumstances (e.g. fearfulness and hypervigilance, poor social interaction with peers, aggression towards self and others, misery, and growth failure in some cases). The syndrome probably occurs as a direct result of severe parental neglect, abuse, or serious mishandling.
Use additional code, if desired, to identify any associated failure to thrive or growth retardation.
Excludes:Asperger's syndrome (F84.5)
disinhibited attachment disorder of childhood (F94.2)
maltreatment syndromes (T74.-)
normal variation in pattern of selective attachment
sexual or physical abuse in childhood, resulting in psychosocial problems (Z61.4-Z61.6)
F94.2Disinhibited attachment disorder of childhood
Latin: Disordo disinhibitionalis connexivus puerilis
A particular pattern of abnormal social functioning that arises during the first five years of life and that tends to persist despite marked changes in environmental circumstances, e.g. diffuse, nonselectively focused attachment behaviour, attention-seeking and indiscriminately friendly behaviour, poorly modulated peer interactions; depending on circumstances there may also be associated emotional or behavioural disturbance.
Affectionless psychopathy
Institutional syndrome
Excludes:Asperger's syndrome (F84.5)
hospitalism in children (F43.2)
hyperkinetic disorders (F90.-)
reactive attachment disorder of childhood (F94.1)
F94.8Other childhood disorders of social functioning
Latin: Disordines functionis socialis puerilis alii
F94.9Childhood disorder of social functioning, unspecified
Latin: Disordo functionis socialis puerilis, non specificatus

F95Tic disorders
Latin: Disordines spasmi involuntarii
Syndromes in which the predominant manifestation is some form of tic. A tic is an involuntary, rapid, recurrent, nonrhythmic motor movement (usually involving circumscribed muscle groups) or vocal production that is of sudden onset and that serves no apparent purpose. Tics tend to be experienced as irresistible but usually they can be suppressed for varying periods of time, are exacerbated by stress, and disappear during sleep. Common simple motor tics include only eye-blinking, neck-jerking, shoulder- shrugging, and facial grimacing. Common simple vocal tics include throat-clearing, barking, sniffing, and hissing. Common complex tics include hitting oneself, jumping, and hopping. Common complex vocal tics include the repetition of particular words, and sometimes the use of socially unacceptable (often obscene) words (coprolalia), and the repetition of one's own sounds or words (palilalia).
F95.0Transient tic disorder
Latin: Tic transitorius
Meets the general criteria for a tic disorder but the tics do not persist longer than 12 months. The tics usually take the form of eye-blinking, facial grimacing, or head-jerking.
F95.1Chronic motor or vocal tic disorder
Latin: Tic motorius sive vocalis chronicus
Meets the general criteria for a tic disorder, in which there are motor or vocal tics (but not both), that may be either single or multiple (but usually multiple), and last for more than a year.
F95.2Combined vocal and multiple motor tic disorder [de la Tourette]
Latin: Tic motorius et vocalis multiplex (de la Tourette)
A form of tic disorder in which there are, or have been, multiple motor tics and one or more vocal tics, although these need not have occurred concurrently. The disorder usually worsens during adolescence and tends to persist into adult life. The vocal tics are often multiple with explosive repetitive vocalizations, throat-clearing, and grunting, and there may be the use of obscene words or phrases. Sometimes there is associated gestural echopraxia which may also be of an obscene nature (copropraxia).
F95.8Other tic disorders
Latin: Tic alius
F95.9Tic disorder, unspecified
Latin: Tic, non specificatus

F98Other behavioural and emotional disorders with onset usually occurring in childhood and adolescence
Latin: Disordines emotionum et disordines morum in infantia sive adolescentia orti alii
A heterogeneous group of disorders that share the characteristic of an onset in childhood but otherwise differ in many respects. Some of the conditions represent well-defined syndromes but others are no more than symptom complexes that need inclusion because of their frequency and association with psychosocial problems, and because they cannot be incorporated into other syndromes.
Excludes:breath-holding spells (R06.8)
gender identity disorder of childhood (F64.2)
Kleine-Levin syndrome (G47.8)
obsessive-compulsive disorder (F42.-)
sleep disorders due to emotional causes (F51.-)
F98.0Nonorganic enuresis
Latin: Enuresis non organica
A disorder characterized by involuntary voiding of urine, by day and by night, which is abnormal in relation to the individual's mental age, and which is not a consequence of a lack of bladder control due to any neurological disorder, to epileptic attacks, or to any structural abnormality of the urinary tract. The enuresis may have been present from birth or it may have arisen following a period of acquired bladder control. The enuresis may or may not be associated with a more widespread emotional or behavioural disorder.
Enuresis (primary)(secondary) of nonorganic origin
Functional enuresis
Psychogenic enuresis
Urinary incontinence of nonorganic origin
Excludes:enuresis NOS (R32)
F98.1Nonorganic encopresis
Latin: Encopresis non organica
Repeated, voluntary or involuntary passage of faeces, usually of normal or near-normal consistency, in places not appropriate for that purpose in the individual's own sociocultural setting. The condition may represent an abnormal continuation of normal infantile incontinence, it may involve a loss of continence following the acquisition of bowel control, or it may involve the deliberate deposition of faeces in inappropriate places in spite of normal physiological bowel control. The condition may occur as a monosymptomatic disorder, or it may form part of a wider disorder, especially an emotional disorder (F93.-) or a conduct disorder (F91.-).
Functional encopresis
Incontinence of faeces of nonorganic origin
Psychogenic encopresis
Use additional code, if desired, to identify the cause of any coexisting constipation.
Excludes:encopresis NOS (R15)
F98.2Feeding disorder of infancy and childhood
Latin: Disordo nutritionis infantis et pueri
A feeding disorder of varying manifestations usually specific to infancy and early childhood. It generally involves food refusal and extreme faddiness in the presence of an adequate food supply, a reasonably competent caregiver, and the absence of organic disease. There may or may not be associated rumination (repeated regurgitation without nausea or gastrointestinal illness).
Rumination disorder of infancy
Excludes:anorexia nervosa and other eating disorders (F50.-)
· difficulties and mismanagement (R63.3)
· problems of newborn (P92.-)
pica of infancy or childhood (F98.3)
F98.3Pica of infancy and childhood
Latin: Pica infantilis et pica puerilis
Persistent eating of non-nutritive substances (such as soil, paint chippings, etc.). It may occur as one of many symptoms that are part of a more widespread psychiatric disorder (such as autism), or as a relatively isolated psychopathological behaviour; only the latter is classified here. The phenomenon is most common in mentally retarded children and, if mental retardation is also present, F70-F79 should be selected as the main diagnosis.
F98.4Stereotyped movement disorders
Latin: Disordines motuum stereotypici
Voluntary, repetitive, stereotyped, nonfunctional (and often rhythmic) movements that do not form part of any recognized psychiatric or neurological condition. When such movements occur as symptoms of some other disorder, only the overall disorder should be recorded. The movements that are of a non self-injurious variety include: body-rocking, head-rocking, hair-plucking, hair-twisting, finger-flicking mannerisms, and hand-flapping. Stereotyped self-injurious behaviour includes repetitive head-banging, face-slapping, eye-poking, and biting of hands, lips or other body parts. All the stereotyped movement disorders occur most frequently in association with mental retardation (when this is the case, both should be recorded). If eye-poking occurs in a child with visual impairment, both should be coded: eye-poking under this category and the visual condition under the appropriate somatic disorder code.
Stereotype/habit disorder
Excludes:abnormal involuntary movements (R25.-)
movement disorders of organic origin (G20-G25)
nail-biting (F98.8)
nose-picking (F98.8)
stereotypies that are part of a broader psychiatric condition (F00-F95)
thumb-sucking (F98.8)
tic disorders (F95.-)
trichotillomania (F63.3)
F98.5Stuttering [stammering]
Latin: Battarismus
Speech that is characterized by frequent repetition or prolongation of sounds or syllables or words, or by frequent hesitations or pauses that disrupt the rhythmic flow of speech. It should be classified as a disorder only if its severity is such as to markedly disturb the fluency of speech.
Excludes:cluttering (F98.6)
tic disorders (F95.-)
Latin: Oratio festinans cum interruptionibus
A rapid rate of speech with breakdown in fluency, but no repetitions or hesitations, of a severity to give rise to diminished speech intelligibility. Speech is erratic and dysrhythmic, with rapid jerky spurts that usually involve faulty phrasing patterns.
Excludes:stuttering (F98.5)
tic disorders (F95.-)
F98.8Other specified behavioural and emotional disorders with onset usually occurring in childhood and adolescence
Latin: Disordines emotionum et disordines morum in infantia sive adolescentia alii specifici
Attention deficit disorder without hyperactivity
Excessive masturbation
F98.9Unspecified behavioural and emotional disorders with onset usually occurring in childhood and adolescence
Latin: Disordines emotionum et disordines morum in infantia sive adolescentia, non specificati